August 4th, 2021
From Tunnels and VPNs
WireGuard® is an extremely simple yet fast and modern VPN that utilizes state-of-the-art cryptography. It aims to be faster, simpler, leaner, and more useful than IPsec, while avoiding the massive headache. It intends to be considerably more performant than OpenVPN. WireGuard is designed as a general purpose VPN for running on embedded interfaces and super computers alike, fit for many different circumstances.
WireGuard uses state-of-the-art cryptography, like the Noise protocol framework, Curve25519, ChaCha20, Poly1305, BLAKE2, SipHash24, HKDF, and secure trusted constructions. It makes conservative and reasonable choices and has been reviewed by cryptographers.
WireGuard securely encapsulates IP packets over UDP. You add a WireGuard interface, configure it with your private key and your peers’ public keys, and then you send packets across it. All issues of key distribution and pushed configurations are out of scope of WireGuard; these are issues much better left for other layers, lest we end up with the bloat of IKE or OpenVPN. In contrast, it more mimics the model of SSH and Mosh; both parties have each other’s public keys, and then they’re simply able to begin exchanging packets through the interface.
From WireGuard WP
WireGuard works by adding a network interface (or multiple), like eth0 or wlan0, called wg0 (or wg1, wg2, wg3, etc). This network interface can then be configured normally using ifconfig(8) or ip-address(8), with routes for it added and removed using route(8) or ip-route(8), and so on with all the ordinary networking utilities. The specific WireGuard aspects of the interface are configured using the wg(8) tool. This interface acts as a tunnel interface.
From Wikipedia: TUN/TAP
In computer networking, TUN and TAP are kernel virtual network devices. Being network devices supported entirely in software, they differ from ordinary network devices which are backed by physical network adapters. TUN, namely network TUNnel, simulates a network layer device and operates in layer 3 carrying IP packets. TAP, namely network TAP, simulates a link layer device and operates in layer 2 carrying Ethernet frames. TUN is used with routing. TAP can be used to create a user space network bridge.
Uses and Platforms from Wikipedia: TUN/TAP
WireGuard and VirtualBox interfaces on my laptop
Only my Wifi is currently connected here
http-server -a 192.168.2.1 -p 8080
Not really confidential info, but it could be
Can we tell WireGuard is being used by sniffing traffic
Can we tell that a client is talking to an HTTP server?
Who is “they” in each case below?
Idea: Use an “intermediary” (proxy) to forward your requests to the destination website so the web site will see the proxy’s address and not yours. See How to Choose a Good VPN. Let’s look at an open source example.
From Tor Overview
The Tor network is a group of volunteer-operated servers that allows people to improve their privacy and security on the Internet. Tor’s users employ this network by connecting through a series of virtual tunnels rather than making a direct connection, thus allowing both organizations and individuals to share information over public networks without compromising their privacy.
From Tor Overview
Individuals use Tor to keep websites from tracking them and their family members, or to connect to news sites, instant messaging services, or the like when these are blocked by their local Internet providers. Tor’s onion services let users publish web sites and other services without needing to reveal the location of the site.
From Tor Overview
Using Tor protects you against a common form of Internet surveillance known as “traffic analysis.” Traffic analysis can be used to infer who is talking to whom over a public network. Knowing the source and destination of your Internet traffic allows others to track your behavior and interests. This can impact your checkbook if, for example, an e-commerce site uses price discrimination based on your country or institution of origin. It can even threaten your job and physical safety by revealing who and where you are.
See Tor Slides 5-28.
From Wikipedia: Dark Web
The dark web is the World Wide Web content that exists on darknets: overlay networks that use the Internet but require specific software, configurations, or authorization to access. Through the dark web, private computer networks can communicate and conduct business anonymously without divulging identifying information, such as a user’s location
From Tor: Onion Services
Tor makes it possible for users to hide their locations while offering various kinds of services, such as web publishing or an instant messaging server. Using Tor “rendezvous points,” other Tor users can connect to these onion services, formerly known as hidden services, each without knowing the other’s network identity.
From Tor Design Paper
Rendezvous points are a building block for location-hidden services in the Tor network. Location-hidden services allow Bob to offer a TCP service, such as a webserver, without revealing his IP address. This type of anonymity protects against distributed DoS attacks: attackers are forced to attack the onion routing network because they do not know Bob’s IP address.